Grande-Bretagne dans Cycnos


Cycnos | Volume 25 n° Spécial - 2006

Double et dualité chez Lady Clementina Hawarden, photographe victorienne

De manière aussi bien thématique que graphique, Lady Clementina Hawarden explora à travers son oeuvre photographique la question de la représentation de la féminité dans la société victorienne patriarcale à travers les aspects de la dualité, de la gémellité et du double. Imitant les codes traditionnels de la photographie, elle dépeignit la perte d'identité en tant que condition de la féminité. Duplication et gémellité, soutenues par la géométrie de l'espace, la stéréoscopie et les miroirs, contribuent à la caricature de normes prédominantes, pour dénoncer l'effet de standardisation et la réification de la femme en tant que signe visuel. Subvertissant la dualité quasiment manichéenne de la représentation des femmes, Lady Clementina Hawarden ébranla la conception prédominante de la féminité et en proposa une nouvelle définition : une somme de cette dualité, ambivalente plutôt que dichotomique.Elle employa ainsi les doubles à la fois en tant qu'instruments de dénonciation et d'émancipation et tenta d'atteindre l'unité du moi féminin. Throughout her photographic work, thematically as well as graphically, Lady Clementina Hawarden explored the question of the representation of femininity in patriarchal Victorian society through the aspects of duality, twinship and the double. Imitating the traditional photographic codes, she pictured the loss of identity as a condition of femininity.Duplication and twinnings, sustained by the geometry of space, stereoscopy and mirrors, contribute to the caricature of prevailing norms, to denounce the effect of standardisation and reification of woman as a visual sign. Subverting the almost Manichean duality of the representation of women, Lady Clementina Hawarden undermined the predominant conception of womanhood and proposed a new definition of it: the very sum of this duality, ambivalent rather than dichotomous. Thus, she employed doubles both as instruments of denunciation and emancipation and attempted to attain feminine self-unity. 

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Cycnos | Volume 28 n° Spécial

« Tu ne tueras point ». Perspectives sur le suicide assisté en Grande-Bretagne

In Britain, euthanasia and assisted suicide are illegal. According to the 1961 Suicide Act, aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the suicide of another is a crime punishable by up to fourteen years of imprisonment. This has led more than a hundred British citizens to so-called “death tourism” in the last few years. Many have travelled to the Swiss clinic of organisation Dignitas which accompanies dying patients and assist them with “a self-determined end of life”.1 The debate over the liberalisation of end-of-life practices is currently raging in Britain. There are more and more advocates of the decriminilisation or legalisation of assisted suicide. According to a ComRes 2010 poll, 73% of people agreed that family or friends should not fear prosecution if they help a loved one to die.2But the law sets a clear line: “thou shalt not kill”, the life of other people cannot be taken. People may not choose the time and manner in which they die. Is this simply a refusal of the “right to die in dignity” (in the words of Sir Terry Pratchett and other right-to-die campaigners)? Why do doctors, politicians, and religious leaders refuse to change the law or to see it changed? Here are some of the questions this paper will address.

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